Navigating the World of Disinformation

Our online training is designed to give you the knowledge and skills you need to navigate the disinformation-plagued digital landscape. Through engaging modules, you will gain a deep understanding of disinformation, including its definition, common forms, and impact on individuals and society. The training focuses on developing and improving critical thinking skills so you can critically evaluate information and effectively identify potential disinformation. You will also learn basic fact-checking techniques to verify information before sharing it, and how to behave responsibly online. Topics covered range from understanding the motives behind disinformation and the role of social media to recognizing warning signs, using fact-checking tools, and building resilience to disinformation. By the end of the course, you will be equipped with the tools necessary to combat disinformation and make informed decisions in the digital realm.

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Understanding Disinformation
Definition of disinformation Click to read

Disinformation, misinformation and malinformation

Disinformation is false or misleading information that is intentionally spread with the purpose of deceiving or manipulating others.

Misinformation refers to false or inaccurate information that is spread without the deliberate intent to deceive. It can arise due to various reasons, such as misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or a lack of knowledge on the part of the person sharing the information.

Malinformation is true information that is shared with the explicit intent to cause harm, damage reputation, or invade privacy. It involves the deliberate disclosure of private or confidential information without consent, leaking sensitive documents, or sharing personal information to harm someone's reputation.




Truthfulness of Information



Intentional deception

False or misleading

Deceive, manipulate, shape public opinion


Unintentional dissemination

False or inaccurate

Lack of knowledge, misunderstanding


Deliberate harm


Cause harm, damage reputation, invade privacy

Types of disinformation Click to read

UNHCR (2022):

Fabricated Content: Completely false content;

Manipulated Content: Genuine information or imagery that has been distorted, e.g. a sensational headline or populist ‘click bait’;

Imposter Content: Impersonation of genuine sources, e.g. using the branding of an established agency;

Misleading Content: Misleading information, e.g. comment presented as fact;

False Context: Factually accurate content combined with false contextual information, e.g. when the headline of an article does not reflect the content;

Satire and Parody: Humorous but false stores passed off as true. There is no intention to harm but readers may be fooled;

False Connections: When headlines, visuals or captions do not support the content;

Sponsored Content: Advertising or PR disguised as editorial content;

Propaganda: Content used to manage attitudes, values and knowledge;

Error: A mistake made by established new agencies in their reporting.


Fabricated Content

The news of Pope Francis endorsing Donald Trump ahead of the 2016 US presidential election was fabricated—false information intentionally created and spread to deceive.



Manipulated Content

A doctored photo falsely depicts pro-Beijing politician Junius Ho waving the American flag at a pro-democracy march in Hong Kong, misleadingly shared on social media platforms.


Imposter Content

The leading Croatian newspaper Jutarnji list allegedly published disinformation that the son of HZJZ director Krunoslav Capak was hospitalized after being vaccinated. The original headline was changed to create a misleading narrative and attributed to a reliable source.


False Context

The photo shows 6,000 fans of Borussia Moenchengladbach playing against Wolfsberg at the Merkur Arena in Graz, Austria, and was featured on Facebook as an alleged protest against Covid 19 measures in Graz, Austria.


Satire and Parody

The satirical magazine The Onion published a joke that the Dalai Lama plans to retire after another lifetime. Many readers considered this to be correct information.


False Connections

The headline was overemphasized or misleading to entice a person to click on a link. Once the link is clicked, the user is redirected to another website that contains numerous advertisements and sometimes malicious content.



Cheapfakes & deepfakes Click to read

Cheapfakes refer to manipulated or edited media that are relatively simple and low-cost to create. They typically involve basic modifications to images or videos, such as adding or removing elements, altering context, or applying basic filters.

Deepfakes refer to highly realistic and sophisticated manipulated media that are created using deep learning algorithms and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques.